Title I is the federal program that provides funding to local school districts to improve the academic achievement of disadvantaged students. It is part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act first passed in 1965. That Act is reauthorized by Congress from time to time, and often given a new name.
In October 2015, new laws were enacted by Congress that changed ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) to ESSA (Every Student Succeeds Act). Read more about it at: http://www.ed.gov/essa